Style at ISGR
This paper studied how leadership works within a non-profit, religious organization like the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond (ISGR), especially after the events of September 11, 2001. The students gathered information through numerous site visits, meetings with volunteers, and through observing many of the services provided at ISGR. A basic understanding of Islam, as well as a thorough grasp of the leadership literature, was necessary to accurately complete the analysis.
ISGR demonstrates the ways in which leadership theories can be put into practice in a non-profit, religious organization. The structure of the ISGR allows for maximum volunteer involvement and facilitates the development of a truly unified organization. ISGR uses Shura (consultation) as a guiding rule for leadership with its emphasis on consultation and community. Volunteers are able to work within a framework that empowers them to serve in whatever capacity they can. They see their contributions as a service to society, not just as the fulfillment of a personal goal. Fluidity is the dominant structural feature as there is no distinction between leader and follower; it allows everyone to utilize the skills in a manner that best helps the organization as a whole. The emphasis on individuals working together within the framework of a common mission and, more specifically, a common faith, creates a relaxed atmosphere with a focus on group unity. There is no hierarchy within the ISGR and this empowers individuals to take the initiative and lead wherever they see fit. Titles and conventional leadership positions are not that important. The freedom for self-leadership is vital to the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond; because it allows volunteers to think creatively and tackle problems in an innovative manner.
As the events of September 11, 2001 unfolded, media attention was increasingly focused on the Islamic world. As the dust settled around the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon, all eyes were on Islam. In the days following the worst terrorist attack on American soil, the world’s one billion Muslims were thrust into the world spotlight (Ali, 1996, 13). More specifically, the five million Muslims residing in the United States were subject to criticism, suspicion, scrutiny, and discrimination (George, 2002, p. 28). Muslim organizations in the United States quickly reacted to the unfavorable attention by increasing their visibility in order to educate the public on the true teachings of Islam. One such organization at the forefront of this movement is the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond.
One Muslim, […], who discovered a need for a mosque that caters to the West End of Richmond, established the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond in 1997. Since its founding in 1997, the organization has experienced spectacular growth, and hundreds of Muslims have benefited from the services that the ISGR provides. The primary mission of the ISGR is to offer a place of worship and support for some of the 6,000 Muslims in the Greater Richmond area. One of its greatest goals is education of the non-Muslim community in Greater Richmond through its outreach services. Its activities include prayer services, Ramadan activities, Dawaah service to local prisons and jails, wedding services, education through Sunday school, and refugee relief. Both Muslims and non-Muslims are invited to volunteer and reap the benefits of the ISGR’s many services. Participation is based on individual competencies as outlined by Kelley’s theory of effective followers (Kelley, 1988, p. 199). People get involved in areas for which they are most qualified. One volunteer may be most suited to lead prayer, while another’s talents would be best utilized in teaching English to a refugee family. And although the ISGR is located in a small, rented house in the West End of Richmond, the magnitude of services and outreach opportunities is enormous.
The only requirement for ISGR involvement is the desire to serve the Muslim and non-Muslim community of Greater Richmond. The ISGR welcomes all who express interest in the Muslim faith, and provides countless opportunities for volunteers to get involved. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is a non-profit organization funded solely by donations. Most donations come from volunteers within the organization. The ISGR also receives money through fundraising; however, the ISGR relies more on individual donations. One of the fundamental tenants of Islam is zakat, or the giving of alms, included as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. This requires Muslims to give some portion of their income to Islamic philanthropies (Martin, 1982, p. 14). However, the ISGR does not request such donations from its members. In addition, no one affiliated with the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is financially compensated. Thus, the organization is purely volunteer-based, and volunteers are utilized as they offer their time and expertise. When need arises, the ISGR will request the aid of volunteers, however, for the most part, volunteers are more than willing to volunteer. All volunteers in the organization are Muslim and they represent many different countries, ages, sexes, and ethnicities. For example, in any given prayer gathering, an Egyptian, a Pakistani, an African-American, and a Caucasian-American will pray side-by-side in the ISGR. This diversity is derived from the Islamic doctrine of umma, which means “a community of believers” (Martin, 1982, p. 158). This tenant governs the way ISGR deals with other mosques in the Greater Richmond area. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is one of three smaller mosques in the Greater Richmond area. There is also one large mosque in Chesterfield that is a center for worship for many Muslims. All of these mosques work together toward the common goals of the Islamic community. Their intercommunication and relations culminate in the Islamic festivals of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha.
It is extremely important to note that Muslims do not celebrate the birthday of the Prophet because he did not like being elevated above other people. For this reason, no individual holds the traditional leadership position. Thus, within all of these organizations, there is no rigid hierarchy. In Islam, organizations are based on the concept of shura, or consultation, which is a principle given to Muslims from their holy book, the Koran. In chapter 2, verse 38 of the Koran, it is stated, “Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance; And those who answer the call of their Lord and establish worship, and whose affairs are a matter of counsel, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them, And those who respond to their Lord and keep up prayer, and their rule is to take counsel among themselves, and who spend out of what We have given them” (Islamic Server of MSA-USC, 1998, p.1). Therefore, Muslims must adhere to Allah’s demand for Muslims to consult each other. Allah decrees that their consultation should be based on the concepts of shura. In chapter 42, verse 39, Allah commands that, “Their affairs are conducted by shura” (Islamic Shura Council of Southern California, 1998, p. 1). This is the leadership principle of Islam. This principle leads Muslims to follow. Islam is based on three simple concepts. First, all people in a society have equal human and civil rights. Secondly, issues that affect the public are decided best by the majority’s view. Finally, “the three other principles of justice, equality and human dignity, which constitute Islam’s moral core, … are best realized, in personal as well as public life, under shura governance” (Sulaiman, 1999, p.1). This concept of shura is clearly exhibited in the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, where the volunteers must consult all of he participants and then decide issues based on this consultation. In addition, ISGR volunteers consult people who possess certain skills depending on the aims of the organization.
Our primary purpose in studying the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is to understand how leadership works within a non-profit, religious organization within a unique cultural context. It is especially important to study the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond after the events of September 11, 2001.
In order to fully understand the leadership dynamics within the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, it was necessary to study the role leadership plays in all levels of the organization. It was also important to understand the concept of shura, as it serves as the basis of the ISGR. Information was gathered through numerous site visits, meetings with volunteers, and through observing many of the services provided by the organization. A basic understanding of Islam, as well as a thorough grasp of the leadership literature, was necessary to accurately complete the analysis of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond.
Shura was the guiding principle when […], along with a group of Muslims residing in the West End of Richmond, saw the need for a mosque that catered to their geographic region. Thus the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond was born out of a need, and citizen leaders stepped up to the plate to meet that need. Couto describes citizen leaders as those who “exhibit the leadership which occurs when people take sustained action to bring about change that will permit them a continued or increased well-being” (Couto, 1978, p. 12). Citizen leaders are not looking for recognition; rather, they are searching for a way to make small differences in their communities. While the ISGR citizen leaders may have started off with small goals, they have affected the entire Richmond community because of their selfless dedication. “Enlightened leadership is service, not selfishness,” said Lao-tzu (Lao-tzu, 1085, p. 69). They put the interests of their community first, rather than following individual goals. The group responsible for creating the ISGR was working towards the “continued or increased well-being” of their community, yet its goals began modestly. Gradually, what began as the simple fulfillment of a need evolved to an organization with a variety of services catering to both Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The men who undertook the daunting task of creating a place of worship for an entire community did so out of a genuine desire to serve. […] took this dimension of service to a whole new level.
[…] is the lifeblood of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond. Though he has a full-time job, he acts in the capacity of “manager” of the ISGR. Shura dictates that titles and conventional leadership positions are invalid as a part of Islam, and thus […]’s title is used for the purpose of outside observers. Quite simply, if anything is happening with the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, […] is somehow involved. He takes care of the daily business of the ISGR—returning phone calls, maintaining the website, dealing with finances, and coordinating the volunteers. When people call for information about the ISGR or about Islam in general, it is […] who answers their questions. When volunteers cannot be found to make a presentation on Islam for a local elementary school or congregation, it is […] who represents the ISGR. He is a marriage counselor, a prayer leader, a spokesman, an educator, and an overall cheerleader for the members of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond and all that they do. His role goes beyond that of simply coping with organizational complexity that is characteristic of managers (Kotter, 1990, p. 115). […] transcends the traditional managerial role. “Leaders do the right thing, whereas managers do things right” (Adler, 1997, p. 241). […] is both a leader and a manager because he is emotionally and spiritually invested in everything that occurs at the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond. In fact, […] exemplifies the concept of Super-Leadership by “leading others to lead themselves” (Manz and Sims, 1991, p. 219). His leadership and willingness to serve is not only a testimony to his leadership ability, but it is evidence of his deep-rooted faith. “Leaders become ‘super’ –that is, can possess the strength and wisdom of many persons—by helping to unleash the abilities of the ‘followers’ (self-leaders) that surround them” (Manz & Sims, 1991, p. 216). The result of this is an organization based on the willingness of “followers” to involve themselves in every aspect of the ISGR.
The services provided by the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond would not be possible without the work and dedication of its volunteers. The structure of the ISGR creates a unique opportunity for involvement in that there is no hierarchy. Thus volunteers are able to act as Kelley’s “Effective Followers, who think for themselves and carry out their duties and assignments with energy and assertiveness” (Kelley, 1988, p. 196). This lack of hierarchy means an organization feminine in nature; that is, it embodies the traits characteristic of the traditional ways in which women lead. Feminine-style leadership is focused primarily on interaction rather than task (Rosener, 1990, p. 150). The unity within the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is a perfect reflection of Rosener’s theory of feminine leadership. Also, the flat power structure, as well as the focus on process over product exemplifies typical leadership traits. Shura, is the Islamic equivalent of this leadership style, with its emphasis on consultation and community. Volunteers are able to work within a framework that empowers them to serve in whatever capacity they can. This creates an organizational culture made up of servant leaders.
Greenleaf describes servant leaders as those who get involved in any given organization for the betterment of that organization and all those affiliated with it (Greenleaf, 1977, p. 22). In the case of servant leadership, those involved see their contributions as a service to society, not just as the fulfillment of a personal goal. Because organizations based on servant leadership do not have a distinction between leader and follower, fluidity is the dominant structural feature. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is based on this fluidity. Volunteers at the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond do just that. This fluidity is especially important in Islam because no distinction is made between mosques. Muslims work together as a function, and because there are so many mosques in the Richmond area, Muslims might get involved n various mosques. As a result of this emphasis on collaboration, faces may change within each mosque. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, therefore, cannot claim any specific number of volunteers because Muslims volunteer where their contributions are considered necessary. Those who assist refugees or prisoners or who teach Sunday school do so out of a desire to share their talents with those who are in need of them the most. Selfless is the common denominator in all of the individuals who give of themselves in some capacity in order to help others. An example of this interaction between Richmond-area mosques is how […], a painter who used to volunteer as a teacher in a South Side mosque, offered his time and knowledge when the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond expressed a need for teachers. This fluidity, exemplified by […]’s willingness to lend a hand, is common among servant leaders who are looking to make a difference wherever possible.
In their various functions, these servant leaders demonstrate the necessary qualities of effective followers as outlined by Kelley. Being an effective follower involves being able to think and act for oneself. The structure of the ISGR enables the volunteers to act in a manner that best suits their personalities. For example, Sister […] does not follow a specific curriculum in her Sunday school class, nor does she have a specific teaching method. The loose structure of the ISGR gives her the freedom to modify her lesson plan if the students seem disinterested or already knowledgeable about the subject being discussed. In one class, Sister […] came prepared to discuss the presence of angels in Islam, but as her students demonstrated their knowledge of the subject, she was able to modify the class in order to serve her students better by teaching the new information. The freedom for self-leadership is vital to the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, because it allows volunteers to think creatively and tackle problems in an innovative manner.
Sister […] exemplifies the aforementioned leadership style in her interaction with the children in her Sunday school class. She put herself on the same level as the children; she empowered the children to think for themselves by engaging every individual in the learning process. She “attempt[ed] to enhance other people’s sense of self-worth and energize[d] followers” through her positive reinforcement in the form of praise. The mutual respect present between Sister […] and her pupils was palpable. She addresses the male children as “brothers” and the female children as “sisters,” greetings commonly used in adult interaction. This demonstrates her respect for the children as individuals. She explained, “All of us are one.” This commentary extends beyond the Muslim community. The hospitality was evident through her interaction with non-Muslim visitors at the ISGR. She actively attempted to include and educate visitors while addressing them with the familiar “brother” and “sister.” Male teachers, such as […], utilized identical titles when addressing non-Muslim visitors. Yet his leadership style was much more masculine in nature. […]’s manner of instruction was more authoritative in style and there was a more defined distinction between teacher and student. This presence of masculine leadership styles within a characteristically feminine organization mirrors the assertion that the style of leadership is based on the context and situation is not the only variable in the leadership formula. Followers also play key roles in the leadership process. In order to be effective according to Kelley’s guidelines, followers must display a commitment to their organization and its mission and a genuine desire to have a positive impact on that organization (Kelley, 1988, p. 198). This dedication is inherent in religious organizations, and the Islamic society of Greater Richmond is no exception. United by a common faith, the volunteers automatically have a shared value system that directly links them to the goals of the organization. Because it is a religious organization, it is also strongly rooted in moral leadership. “Moral leadership emerges from, and always returns to, the fundamental wants and needs, aspirations, and values of the followers” (Burns, 1978, p. 483). In the case of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, shared values are a product of shared religion. All participants in the leadership process act in a manner that honors their god, Allah. This strict adherence to a common moral code serves as the backbone of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond. This leadership morality is the background for all of the activities at Islamic Society of Greater Richmond. Thus, this shared morality is vital to the immediate context of leadership within the ISGR.
The immediate context of leadership consists of three main focal points, which are structure and goals, culture, and task characteristics (Wren & Swatez, 1995, p. 250). The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond incorporates the immediate context of leadership through the cultural services it provides. The objective of this organization is to provide services that better the Muslim community as well as the non-Muslim community. The members and volunteers of this organization want to educate others about the Islamic faith. The Islamic faith is a way of life, which is based on one unique and distinctive God (Allah). The Qur’an is the Islamic book in which Muslims use to base their practices and worship. The concept of practices and worships leads into the third point of the immediate context of leadership, which are task characteristics. Within the Islamic culture, according to the Islamic society of Greater Richmond, there are worship practices and services that are available for both Muslim and non-Muslim followers. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond provides a place to worship five times a day, in accordance with Islamic doctrine.
The Islamic Center of Greater Richmond also offers the most important prayer service, Jumaah prayer, on Fridays. One of the biggest services of the year, Ramadan, is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Ramadan is a month-long fast in which Muslims cleanse their souls through reflection and spiritual discipline (Esposito, 1998, p. 90).
Other services that the ISGR provides include the Dawaah Service, the wedding service, and refugee services. The Dawaah is a service that informs jail and prison inmates about the fundamentals of Islam. Through this service, ISGR sends volunteers to teach inmates and provide Islamic literature and prayer mats. This prison service is way for ISGR to reach out to the Muslim and non-Muslim community. The ISGR also offers a wedding service and a marriage counseling service for newlyweds or couples that are having difficulties in their relationships. In addition to prayer and wedding services, the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond offers any other requested services that will help Muslim refugees to adapt to American cultural norms while maintaining and supporting the Islamic faith. […], an ISGR volunteer, explained the difficulties inherent in the life of a refugee. In many cases, these refugees come to the United States totally unprepared—without shelter, without job training, unable to speak the language, and wholly unfamiliar with the physical and cultural environment. The ISGR provides services to assist the refugees as they make the difficult transition to American life. The ISGR provides job training, language classes, transitional housing, community support, and even money in order to ease the move.
The focus on education goes beyond the assimilation of refugees. One of the primary goals of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is education of Muslims and non-Muslims in regards to Islamic teachings. The ISGR is composed of Muslim volunteers from all walks of life. Some are teachers, college students, market owners, and businessmen. The common thread that runs through them is that they all base their lives on their holy book the Holy Koran. Through the teachings of this holy book, they believe that the best way to run any organization, including the Sunday school in which they volunteer, is through the concept of shura. One college student who volunteers as a teacher at this masjid, or mosque, said the first steps to educating children about Islam is to instill the idea that there is only one god and that there is only one messenger and that is Muhammad. This is how young Muslims learn to accept their faith and become part of the larger Muslim community. This process is integral in that the faith of Islam calls on all Muslims to be together as brothers and sisters of the world. Thus, Sunday school teachers play a vital role in shaping you Muslims into effective followers.
Kelley’s final characteristic of an effective follower is having the conviction to act in the best interests of the organization (Kelley, 1988, p. 200). Contemporary culture has made this aspect in the ISGR all the more crucial. It is extremely important to study the social values, cultural mores, and sub cultural mores that form the contemporary context of leadership. It is especially important to analyze the impact of societal values within a political context. Undeniably, the ISGR is an organization that exemplifies this contemporary context of leadership. As a non-profit, religious organization within a unique cultural context, the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond is a perfect example of the interaction between leaders and followers in a distinctive cultural context. It is especially timely to study the ISGR because of the tragic events of September 11, 2001. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond has definitely felt effects of September 11. Since September 11, many people and organizations have requested information about Islam. The media for information and clarification has contacted the ISGR more, and Christian organizations have asked Muslims to come into their congregations to speak about Islam. There has also been increased Muslim involvement in the ISGR, and more help has been needed within the organization to answer all requests (Wren & Swatez, 1995, p. 250). In addition, there has been a lot of individual support from members of the Richmond community. For example, churches lined up outside of the ISGR after September 11 to show their support for the Muslim community. Muslims in the ISGR truly want to share their knowledge and faith, and in doing so, quell any untrue rumors that have circulated as a result of September 11. The ISGR is very focused on educating the non-Muslim community and September 11 has allowed them to share even more information about the Islamic faith.
The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond demonstrates a unique and effective leadership style that emphasizes fluidity and that allows all members to utilize their skills in a manner that best helps the organization as a whole. The emphasis on individuals working together within the framework of a common mission and, more specifically, a common faith, creates a relaxed atmosphere with a focus on group unity. Every individual within the ISGR gives selflessly of his or her time, talent, and money in order to make the organization the best it can be. As shura prescribes, there is no hierarchy within the ISGR and this empowers individuals to take the initiative and lead wherever they see fit. Though not a leader by title, […], with his unselfish and unpaid service to the success of the ISGR, serves as a major resource to volunteers as an example of unwavering commitment to the goals of the ISGR, as well as a source of steadfast support for every individual within the reach of the organization. The result of this structure is an organization capable of touching many lives, both Muslim and non-Muslim, through the work of its dedicated volunteers; in other words, the result of this structure is a combination of transforming and transformational leadership.
Burns describes transforming leadership as what “occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher level of motivation and morality” (Burns, 1978, p. 101). Members of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond are constantly challenging one another to reach new heights as they expend their services and focus on an increasingly larger segment of the population as Islam continues to spread. Because they are closely involved in every aspect of their organization as volunteers, educators, prayer leaders, and people of faith, members of the ISGR are forced to hold themselves accountable for the successes and failures of their organization. Having the future of the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond resting on the shoulders of each and every one of its members is a challenge, and those affiliated with the ISGR strive daily to meet that challenge.
The influence of the ISGR extends beyond the walls of its building, and that influence has become increasingly important in a post-September 11 landscape. The focus on educating non-Muslims in the peaceful teachings of Islam is just one way in which members of the ISGR conveys their mission to those not affiliated with the organization. This increased focus on those outside of the ISGR has a ripple effect in that it educates an entirely new segment of the population, thereby empowering them to spread what they have learned to others. Each level of the education pyramid is positively affected by this interaction, and the leadership process takes on an entirely new meaning. This new meaning is transformational leadership. Couto describes the transformational leaders as one who “has transformed followers into more highly motivated followers who provide extra effort to perform beyond expectations of leader and follower” (Couto, 1993, p. 104). This focus on process rather than progress is epitomized in the Islamic Society of Greater Richmond. […] empowers the Sunday school teachers to help the students learn, the teachers translate that enthusiasm to the classroom, and in turn the students come away with a greater understanding of Islam and thus the potential to act as teachers themselves. In this way, leadership within the ISGR is cyclical.
The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond demonstrates the ways in which leadership theories can be put into practice in a non-profit, religious organization. The structure of the ISGR allows for maximum volunteer involvement and facilitates the development of a truly unified organization. As the ISGR looks to the future, it sees expansion of membership, building size, and activities as inevitable, yet its focus will continue to be on individual involvement as a means of creating community. The Islamic Society of Greater Richmond, though it has only existed for five years, is a thriving organization because of the dedication of its members, and harnessing that dedication will mean a bright future for the ISGR and all of those affiliated with it.
Adler, Nancy J. (1997). Women of Influence. In Gary N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of Gender & Work (pp. 239-261). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Ali, M.M. (1996). Muslims in America: The Nation’s Fastest Growing Religion. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, May/June 1996. 13, 107. Online http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0596/9605013.htm.
Burns, James MacGregor (1978). Moral Leadership. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp.483). New York: The Free Press.
Burns, James MacGregor (1978). Transactional and Transforming Leadership. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 10-101). New York: The Free Press.
Couto, Richard A. (1978). Defining a Citizen Leader. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 11-17). New York: The Free Press.
Couto, Richard A. (1978). The Transformation of Transforming Leadership. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 102-107). New York: The Free Press.
Esposito, John L. (1998). Islam: The Straight Path. New York: Oxford University Press.
Islamic Server of MSA-USC. Ash-Shura (Council, Consultation). MSA-USC, 1998. Online http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA.
Islamic Shura Council of Southern California. Objectives and Purposes. ISCSC. 1998. Online http://www2.islamicity.com/iscsc.
George, Timothy (2002), February 4). Is the God of Muhammad the Father of Jesus? The answer to this question reveals the heart of our faith. Christianity Today, 28.
Greenleaf, Robert K. (1977). Servant Leadership. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 18-23). New York: The Free Press.
Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy (1993). What is Leadership? In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 39-43). New York: The Free Press.
Kelley, Robert E. (1988). In Praise of Followers. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 103-204). New York: The Free Press.
Kotter, John P. (1990). What Leaders Really Do. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 114-123). New York: The Free Press.
Lao-tzu (1985). Tao Te Ching. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 69-71). New York: The Free Press.
Manz, C.C. & Sims, H.P., Jr. (1991). SuperLeadership: Beyond the Myth of Heroic Leadership. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 212-221). New York: The Free Press.
Martin, Richard C. (1982). Islam. New Jersey: Simon & Schuster.
Rosener, Judy B. (1990). Ways Women Lead. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 149-160). New York: The Free Press.
Sulaiman, Sadek Jawad. The Shura Principle in Islam. Al-Hewar. 1999. Online http://www.Alhewar.com/SadekShura.htm.
Wren, J. T. & Swatez, M. J. (1995). The Historical and Contemporary Contexts of Leadership: A Conceptual Model. In J. Wren (Ed.), The Leader’s Companion (pp. 245-252). New York: The Free Press.
Last Updated .
© Islamic Society of Greater Richmond (ISGR)